</noinclude> Ancient Egypt was one of the first great civilizations in history, and the longest. Over 3,000 years of relative continuity in lifestyles, beliefs, language and practices. No other civilization lasted as long without major changes. The country is situated at the northeastern tip of the African continent, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The Nile river runs through it, splitting it almost in half before flowering into the delta and emptying out into the Mediterranean. Ancient Egypt, called "Kemet" or the black land, was formed after the nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers settled in the Nile valley, and then unified in approximately 3100 BC. This is attributed to King Narmer, the first true Pharaoh, who waged the unification battles. The history of ancient Egypt is quite vast and is divided into dynastic periods according to the ruling family at the time. Hieroglyphics was the main form of writing in ancient Egypt. Many amazing monuments and artifacts still survive untill now, which give us a glimpse of what life was like back then. One of the main reasons we know what we know about ancient Egypt today is due to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, which was written in 2 ancient Egyptian writing scripts and in Greek. Deciphering the ancient Egyptian writing scripts gave rise to the decoding of its very mysterious history. Also the mummies that survived in good condition give us an insight into the health, looks and medical practices of the ancient Egyptians. Not to mention the elaborate tombs with carvings and artifacts also. Pyramids are the tombs of kings and queens from the Old Kingdom. Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted from the pre-dynastic period before the unification in 3100 BC until the suicide of queen Cleopatra and the invasion of Egypt by ancient Rome around the time of the birth of Christ.

History of Egypt
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Prehistoric Egypt pre–3100 BC
Ancient Egypt
Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC
Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC
1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC
Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC
2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC
New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC
3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC
Late Period 664–332 BC
Classical Antiquity
Achaemenid Egypt 525–332 BC
Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC
Roman & Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD
Sassanid Egypt 621–629
Middle Ages
Arab Egypt 641–969
Fatimid Egypt 969–1171
Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250
Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517
Early Modern
Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867
French occupation 1798–1801
Egypt under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882
Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914
Modern Egypt
British occupation 1882–1953
Sultanate of Egypt 1914–1922
Kingdom of Egypt 1922–1953
Republic 1953–present